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LauNuts is a RDF Knowledge Graph consisting of: It is a hierarchical system where geographical areas are subdivided according to their population sizes.


The current version LauNuts2021b can be downloaded here: It contains the NUTS schemes 2021 and 2016 as well as LAU data from 2021 and 2020. The NUTS 2021 scheme consists of data for the countries AL, AT, BE, BG, CH, CY, CZ, DE, DK, EE, EL, ES, FI, FR, HR, HU, IE, IS, IT, LI, LT, LU, LV, ME, MK, MT, NL, NO, PL, PT, RO, RS, SE, SI, SK, TR and UK. The knowled graph contains 1,181,549 triples.


Article: LauNuts: A Knowledge Graph to identify and compare geographic regions in the European Union
(accepted at ISWC 2023 - The 22nd International Semantic Web Conference, Google Scholar, preprint, slides)


The LauNuts scheme contains the following concepts:

LauNuts schema

SPARQL examples

To execute the SPARQL queries, you can use a public SPARQL endpoint. Alternatively, download the Fuseki triplestore (e.g. After running the included launch script, you can import the LauNuts knowledge graph on

Query type


Execute or edit on public SPARQL endpoint


If you use the LauNuts Knowledge Graph, feel free to add you work to the Usage wiki page. There are also open possibilities for extending the KG, which could become part of student works (see Issues).


This work has been supported by the German Federal Ministry of Education and Research (BMBF) within the project EML4U under the grant no 01IS19080B and by the German Federal Ministry of Transport and Digital Infrastructure (BMVI) within the project OPAL under the grant no 19F2028A.


LauNuts is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International (CC BY 4.0) license by the Data Science Group (DICE) at Paderborn University, Adrian Wilke. The source data is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International (CC BY 4.0) license by the European Union, 1995-2023, see